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The Treaty ofknown as the Chicago Treaty opened this plot of land to white settlers and became the basis for many of the county's land titles.
By necessity, such presentation must be brief, and an effort has been made to place before the reader those phases of development untouched in works, and to utilize in the narrative new data unearthed from records, scrap-books, family records, papers of historical organizations and obtained by personal interviews with early pioneers.
Recording recollections of pioneers of southwestern Michigan counties was begun late, but a considerable amount of valuable material is available in those historically rich but very obscure volumes, the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. Only where the streams have cut deeply through the morainal baiks is sandstone or limestone revealed.
Maps during the British period of occupancy, show the Black river, north of the St. Joseph, as the Iroquois. The men who opened the new country -from the greatest pathfinder who sought to enlarge a kingdom to the humblest person whose ambition was only to find a place where he might pitch his tent and reside till the end of his days-were persons.
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Between the moraines are plains of gravel and sand washed down by the glacial streams, one of which was a river of great size which followed the edge of the Saginaw lobe to where the city of Charlotte, in Eaton county, now stands. The accomplishments of these men are recorded in the archives of the country that benefitted through their perilous adventures in an unknown wilderness in which lurked murderous cannibals and beasts of prey. It included the lake border morainic system, paralleled successively south and east by the Valparaiso and Kalamazoo moraines.
How long ago they were formed few will venture to say, though one scientist declares that it might have been as late as eighteen thousand years ago. Nearer the shores of the great inland lake the rivers cut deeply into the land, their valleys showing successive terraces and lateral valleys through which arrive the tributary waters. [uned] I. Fuller's "Historic Michigan," vol.
It was the country of unknown savages in whose hills were believed to be hidden riches awaiting development by the white man's genius.
Extending from the northeast the contours of the Saginaw lobe covered the territory now embraced by Eaton county and the eastern portion of Barry county. The pioneer days of the United States have gone forever, and the actors of those scenes-strangers in a far-off time-have nearly all passed on "toward the Setting Sun," as the Indians beautifully expressed it.
In this volume the publishers include biographies of men of affairs in their respective communities. The other two came from the direction of Georgian Bay. Between the ice periods there were intervals of warmth, extending probably over thousands of years, and during these epochs the ice was probably all melted away.
Kalamazoo river is uncertain.
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II. III t. It is to be regretted that more local history was not recorded when those who made it were living, but this neglect was probably not so much the result of indifference as it was-and is today-a failure to comprehend the fact that history is being created daily, and that the events of the present, while they seem through familiarity of little importance, will be eagerly reviewed by the delving historian of the future.
It was this stream that cut the large valley through which now flows the Kalamazoo river. Had it not been for the inquiries of the patient few who gathered without financial compensation from the early pioneers their recollections and experiences we should today be unable to present facts drawn from the historical collections of several states. Along them were deep, hard-trodden trails made so long ago the Indians themselves know nothing of those who first traced them. It was during the last glacial advance that most of the moraines in southwestern Michigan were formed.
In the long, curving valleys of these three rivers the geologists saw indications of an ancient land topographically far different from the one they found.
Nor in other, localities are outcroppings numerous. From these flowed streams that eventually emptied into the great rivers mentioned in our narrative or into their tributaries.
The earliest, it has been ascertained, came from the north, bringing with it drift copper from the Lake Superior region. The Ottawas called the Grand river, the largest stream in Michigan, the O-wash-te-nong, meaning the "Far Distant river. Within a few miles of each other on the highlands, reported by the earliest explorers as mountains, were the natal springs of the rivulets which united to form the St. By the Potawatomies, the St.
Joseph was called the Sau-wau-see-be, a name having reference to the drowning of several women.
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This is a valuable contribution to contemporary local history. A vast mine of material, however, remains ready for the historical explorer, particularly that type of explorer who will use dates and statistics and at the same time make the man of today regard the man of yesterday as a desirable acquaintance instead of an automaton with eternally boresome activities. Glaciers advanced at least three times over what is now southwestern M'ichigan. Among these sketches the historian of the future will find a compendium of data from which to select materials.
To the north and south they found long ranges of undulating morainal hills, clothed with the rich verdure of hardwood forests interspersed here and there with tracts of pines.
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Within its borders roamed savages, ready not only to kill the venturesome white intruder, but also to feast on his corpse. In a volume of limited scope, it is impossible to avoid disappointing some readers, but it is hoped that compensatory features will be found within the covers.
These moraines were created when the ice sheet halted between the Lake Michigan and Saginaw lobes, allowing time for the crushed soils and stones to accumulate. The pathfinders have done their work. The hills of the moraines of southwestern Michigan often rise to over one thousand feet above the sea level. Joseph river in Berrien county are siliceous formations resembling rock. Five miles below Hastings, overlooking a beautiful bend in the Thornapple river, an overhanging ledge of porous sandstone protrudes from a high bank as if it were made purposely for a lookout's post.
There it turned southwestward and crossed the Kalamazoo moraine below the site of the village of Bellevue. Curved about the southwestern contour of this lobe is the Charlotte moraine, beyond which lies the Kalamazoo interlobate moraine, with the Kalamazoo now flowing at its foot, through what was once the bed of the great ancient river that carried away waters of the melting glacier.
The land contours of the Great Lakes region guided somewhat the direction of the glaciers, creating the Lake Michigan lobe, the Saginaw lobe and the Erie-Huron lobe. The ice advanced slowly across the Great Lakes region and other parts of the United States, covering thousands of square miles, extending its southern limits until it crossed in several places the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
Near Bellevue, the great glacier planed away the soil to such a shallow depth that limestone rock is visible in layers. When the Lake Michigan ice lobe receded past the Valparaiso moraine a new outlet for the glacial waters was opened, and the river flowed about ten miles northward from Kalamazoo, and there passed into a long narrow body of water called Lake Dowagiac, formed by a dam of ice and debris near the present city of South Bend, the discharging waters by way of the Kankakee valley flowing dating a frenchman Kalamazoo distance the Mississippi.
At Verona Mills, near Battle Creek, and farther up. Historical materials are being daily discovered by societies and persons who are now far enough removed from pioneer times to find interesting research in what is to them an unknown and alluring mine of romance.
In Calhoun, Barry, Kalamazoo and Allegan counties morainal hills are conspicuous features of the landscape. Franquelin's "Carte de la Louisiane," published in Paris inshows a remarkable accuracy in locations of streams.
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Herewith is presented for the first time, a more extensive of old Fort St. Joseph than has heretofore appeared in print. Joseph extended the broad expanse of the level reaches now included in northern Indiana. The St. The spelling of this early name of the. In few places throughout the district is bare rock exposed. In the region southeast of Battle Creek penetrated the contours of the Erie-Huron lobe. JOHN T. [uned] I:f I. Highly developed socially, economically and industrially today, this was once a land as remote to the Easterners of several centuries ago as is the Arctic region to-day.
Of the outstanding events during the French and British regimes in Michigan, official records are available in many sources, and several historians of note have made use of them. Indians, too, furnished data, particularly that concerning activities of the red men after they removed from the valleys of the St. Joseph, the Kalamazoo and Thornapple rivers. Several chapters, however, would have remained unwritten had it not been for the fact that during the editor's boyhood a of venerable pioneers patiently replied to innumerable questions concerning the early days, and without hesitation, contributed information, some of which is presented herewith for the first time-notably the chapter on stage coach days-which is largely based on recollections of the late William Burroughs, Barry county.
CHAINS OF LAKES Extending from the rolling hills of the territory now included in Branch county, to the sand dunes and the castellated till-cliffs of the Lake Michigan shore, were chains of numerous lakes, large and small, formed where waters collected in indentations left by the receding glacier.
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Such formations are so rare in southwestern Michigan that wherever they dating a frenchman Kalamazoo distance they are given wide prominence as scenic wonders. From time to time, while hunting or fishing, or visiting sugar camps, or the blacksmith's forge and gunsmith's bench or while under a humble roof where old-time hospitality was being extended without thought of return, was obtained a large amount of colorful material.
Viewed from the broadest scope the greatest honors go to La Salle and his devoted associate, Henri de Tonti; to Nicholas Perrot and Sieur de la Forest and innumerable others. Thousands and thousands of years ago in the glacial ages the advancing ice sheets pushed down from the region east of Hudson Bay a vast accumulation of rock and soil.
Covered with great forests in which ope'ned here and there beautiful little prairies, this primeval land from prehistoric times grew richer in vegetation and fertility until the plows of the first settlers turned the rich soil upward and with little effort, except for clearing away the forest, brought yields so rich that it became indeed a Land of Promise. IV ' HarvardPh. IX Preface The purpose of this history is to present within its limited scope as graphic a picture as is possible of the outstanding events in the region now included in southwestern Michigan from the earliest times of which there is record down to the present day industrial and agricultural development.
Today they are replaced by the community-builders, whose efforts are centered on social and industrial development and their various ramifications.
In preparation of this volume these have been consulted. Before the advent of the first settlers, the stream was called the Kekalamazoo because of its fanciful likeness to a "bright, bubbling kettle. Thus was the area comprising southwestern Michigan prepared in prehistoric times for the fertility that produced the rich growth of wilderness vegetation and finally the agricultural crops upon which is based the prosperity of the present day. X XA of extraordinary interest.
Along the rivers and bordering the numerous chains of lakes and rivers were tracts of marshlands, some forested, others covered with shrubbery and waving meadow grass in which grazed the buffalo, the elk and the deer. They were idealists who had the courage to test their mettle in an untried field of high endeavor.