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Mild to moderate dental fluorosis is not considered to be an adverse health effect. The current MAC of 1.
Table of Contents. Does not include fluoride intake from straight tap water consumption. At current exposure levels, Canada is not a country cited in the international literature as having wide areas with elevated fluoride concentrations.
Health Res. American Dental Association Fluoridation facts.
4: guidelines for canadian drinking water quality: guideline technical document – fluoride
Acta Orthop. It is not considered to be a toxicological end-point because it is not a health concern, but it is ificant because it correlates with cosmetic problems.
Available at: www. This information was collected from Provincial or Territorial Environment Ministries and then verified by the Dental Directors of each province and territory. Aulerich, R. Chronic toxicity of dietary fluoride. Return to footnote 5 referrer.
Only subjects brushing with fluoridated toothpaste are included in the table. Health Canada has calculated a health-based value of 0. Mutagenesis, 2: [cited in Department of National Health and Welfare, b]. Quality of community drinking water and the occurrence of late adverse pregnancy outcomes. Adapted from Dabeka et al. However, very mild and mild dental fluorosis are not considered to be adverse effects, either from a health or from a cosmetic perspective.
The recent CHMS data have shown that the prevalence of Canadian children with moderate dental fluorosis is too low to be reported. Alberta Environment Fluoride summary Composite community data. Return to footnote 3 referrer.
Aardema, M. Sodium fluoride induced chromosome aberrations in different stages of the cell cycle: a proposed mechanism. Moderate dental fluorosis has been chosen as the endpoint of concern for fluoride.
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Public Health, Amor, Z. Desalination, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Albanese, R. Sodium fluoride and chromosome damage in vitro human lymphocytes and in vivo micronucleus assays. The maximum acceptable concentration is established to ensure levels of fluoride do not exceed this value in treated drinking water. You will not receive a reply. Desalination: Amsterdam2 : Aschengrau, A. Quality of community drinking water and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion.
Dental fluorosis is the effect occurring at the lowest level of exposure in the population, and is the most widely and frequently studied of all adverse effects of fluoride. Balayssac, D. Barbier, J. Bassin, E. Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma United States. Return to footnote 4 referrer. Where natural levels of fluoride in drinking water are exceeding the health-based value, the increased water treatment costs that would have to be incurred by those communities and private wells would be excessive.
Al-Hiyasat, A. Reproductive toxic effects of ingestion of sodium fluoride in female rats. Return to footnote 2 referrer.
Printout provided by G. Alhava, E. The effect of drinking water fluoridation on the fluoride content, strength and mineral density of human bone. Except for the "All formulas" and for the "TDS estimate," all dietary intake estimates were calculated assuming that the only milk or formula type fed to the infant was that described in the table. Fluoride ingestion in children: a review of 87 cases.
Health, [cited in Department of National Health and Welfare, b]. Advisory Review Panel Recommendations regarding fluoride intake.
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Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Fluoride Review of fluoride benefits and risks. Arora, M. Use of membrane technology for potable water production. ATSDR Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. Cancer Causes Control, 17 4 : Beltran, E.
However, the Committee encouraged efforts to control fluoride intake from sources such as toothpaste ingestion and efforts to obtain other up-to-date estimates of daily fluoride intake in Canada.
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For the powdered formula, a dilution of 8. Pediatrics, [cited in Department of National Health and Welfare, b]. The effect of water fluoridation on the bone mineral density of young women.
The concentration of fluoride in coffee from the Toronto composite was used in place of the concentration of fluoride in tea. Investigation of inorganic fluoride and its effects on the occurrence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Canada. The fluoride concentrations used for human milk were 0. Naturally-occurring levels of fluoride above this value could be expected to be found in groundwater, which generally affects well owners and would require residential scale treatment.
Fluoride, Al-Saleh, I. Urinary fluoride levels in Saudi individuals drinking tap and bottled water. For foods and beverages with important water components such as canned soups, pasta, rice, frozen juices, coffee, tea, infant formula, and cerealsthe water used was fluoridated 0.
The situation in Canada is such that only a tiny minority of supplies is likely affected by excess fluoride and there appear to be few or no very high fluoride sources. For enquiries. The Ministries of Environment provided detailed data on the community fluoridated, or the water plants well as population s Health Canada, Return to footnote 1 referrer.