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The influence of the male partner's alcohol consumption patterns and the quality of the partner's intimate relationship might be important factors to consider in the de of successful FASD prevention programs. The impact of spouses and romantic partners on individuals' drinking patterns and problems is already important for treatment and prevention programs, as in couple's therapy Walitzer and Dermen, However, much of the recent research has focused on intimate partner violence, with less attention paid to how drinking relates to other aspects of intimate relationships.

The crude associations between paternal drinking as reported by the mother i. The severity of physical aggression has been shown to be ificantly greater when one or both partners were drinking compared with incidents that did not include alcohol consumption Graham et al. The relationship questions were drawn from the National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women, ukrainian dating Haven KS year longitudinal study of drinking among U. Based on the data obtained on quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption around conception and during pregnancy, women were classified into three groups.

Women who were married, were living with a partner, or had a noncohabiting romantic partner were asked to report on their partner's drinking behavior and on the quality of their intimate relationship. The strength of association was greater among continuing drinkers; however, confidence intervals overlap.

Our study examined this association in expectant couples.

The most common reasons for nonparticipation were lack of interest and time constraints. Learn More. In addition, alcohol use and intimate partner violence are often closely related behaviors, thus representing a serious public health issue Caetano et al. Moreover, the link between substance ukrainian dating Haven KS and intimate partner violence, including physical assaults, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion, may be stronger among pregnant women than among nonpregnant women Martin et al.

In Eastern Europe, countries of the former Soviet Union have some of the highest alcohol consumption prevalence rates Pomerleau et al. Socioeconomic status was assessed by the Hollingshead four-factor index, which incorporates both education and occupation of the mother, father, or other family support person Hollingshead, Pregnancy dates were confirmed by ultrasound examinations.

Women met the criteria for enrollment in the alcohol-exposed group if they reported at least 4 episodes of consuming five or more standard drinks, at least 5 episodes of three to four standard drinks, or at least 10 episodes of one to two standard drinks either in the month just before pregnancy or in the most recent month before the interview.

These include diagnostic criteria, passive versus active surveillance, and difficulties with ascertainment of milder cases of FASD in the absence of fetal alcohol-induced birth defects. Several limitations of the study should be mentioned. Research conducted primarily in the United States has found that discrepancies between drinking patterns of marital partners are associated with indicators of marital discord, including lower relationship satisfaction, poorer communication, and increased risks of intimate partner violence Homish and Leonard, ; Mudar et al.

Finally, in models evaluating the interaction between paternal drinking and each of the relationship variables with respect to maternal drinking as the outcome, only satisfaction with the relationship met the criteria for ificant interaction. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. This is in contrast to nonpregnant women, in whom higher rates of drinking are reported among younger as opposed to older women Wilsnack et al.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Although a specific pattern of malformations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, termed FAS, was described in the s Jones et al. The methodology of the screening process has been described elsewhere Chambers et al.

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A larger proportion of continuing drinkers had an unplanned pregnancy In addition, In this study population, alcohol consumption, including heavy drinking, was quite prevalent among male partners of study participants, as reported by the mothers. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASDs represent a ificant public health problem.

All four inclusion criteria must have been met for a woman to enroll in the comparison group. In a univariate analysis, mean scores for variables describing the quality of intimate relationships i.


Alcohol is a well-established teratogen, and prenatal exposure to alcohol can lead to the development of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASDs. Women also reported on their partner's drinking behavior and on the quality of their intimate relationship. Most studies report much heavier and more prevalent alcohol consumption in men compared with women. Demographics of nonparticipants did not differ substantially from those who agreed to take part in the study. Even among women who reported risky alcohol use in the periconceptional period, women who quit drinking in pregnancy had slightly higher relationship quality than those who continued drinking later in pregnancy.

In expectant parents, a few prior studies reported positive associations between partners' levels of smoking and their levels of alcohol consumption Everett et al. The chi-square test for the proportional odds assumption in this model yielded a p value of.

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Although paternal drinking per se is not thought to be teratogenic, to the extent that it encourages similar behavior in the mother, it may represent a risk factor for FASD. Women were asked to assess their partner's alcohol consumption on the standardized AUDIT with embedded TWEAK questionnaires, which included questions about potential s of alcohol abuse e. Patients who met eligibility criteria for risky exposure and the next screened woman who met eligibility criteria for low or no exposure from the screener were offered participation, and those who agreed ed a statement of informed consent.

In the United States, older, more educated, employed, and unmarried women may have a higher prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy CDC, ; Waterson et al.

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This study suggests that development of partner-based interventions, as opposed to those solely focused on maternal drinking, might be warranted as a strategy to prevent FASD. The baseline questionnaire also included questions about demographic characteristics age, marital status, education level, socioeconomic statusmedical and reproductive health gravidity, parity, outcomes of prior pregnanciesthe current pregnancy pregnancy dating, any complications, timing of pregnancy recognition, and access to prenatal caretobacco and illicit drug use, and use of any medications.

Briefly, women were asked to report quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption in the month just before pregnancy and during the most recent month of pregnancy. As presented in Table 1, there were some differences among the three maternal drinking with respect to age distribution, marital status, socioeconomic status, pregnancy planning, and tobacco use. The distributions of maternal characteristics among study groups were compared by chi-square analyses.

Pregnant women who reported to one of two regional clinical facilities for prenatal ultrasound, a routine procedure for pregnant women in Ukraine, served as the study population. In addition, pregnant women may be more likely to reduce their alcohol consumption if their partners also decrease their consumption Waterson et al. The prevalence of full-blown FAS ranges from 0. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9. Its primary goals are to further characterize the entire spectrum of physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes resulting from fetal alcohol exposure and to develop prevention and treatment approaches ukrainian dating Haven KS FASD.

Interestingly, continuing drinkers had lower mean scores than women who used alcohol in early pregnancy but discontinued later on. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the influence of paternal drinking and associations between the quality of the partner relationship and the mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy have not been extensively explored. To the extent that these factors are related, development of partner-based interventions, as opposed to interventions solely focused on the mother, among pregnant or pre-pregnant couples might be warranted. An extensive body of literature, mostly from English-speaking countries, demonstrates that married or cohabiting partners tend to have similar substance use patterns, problem drinking, and alcohol use disorders Wilsnack et al.

FASD encompasses a continuum of clinical presentations caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, ranging from full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome FAS to partial FAS, alcohol-related birth defects, and alcohol-related neurodevel-opmental disorder Hoyme et al. The analysis was repeated using an analysis of covariance, adjusting for maternal age, gravidity, pregnancy planning, and family socioeconomic status. The sample consisted of pregnant women who were recruited between and during the first stage of the CIFASD project in Ukraine. To assess the association between the quality of the couple's relationship and maternal drinking, mean scores for each variable describing relationship quality were compared among the three ukrainian dating Haven KS drinking groups by analysis of variance.

Enrolled subjects then participated in the baseline interview, typically during the same clinic visit in which they were screened and at an average of The interviews were conducted at the clinic by trained study staff members obstetric nurses or geneticists. All interviewers underwent extensive training in interviewing techniques for assessing alcohol consumption conducted by the principal investigator C. At the baseline interview, patients were asked to report their alcohol consumption during the periconceptional period typical week around the time of conception and during the 2 weeks immediately preceding the interview, using the Timeline Followback TLFB procedure Sobell and Sobell, Subjects were asked to report exact quantities of specific alcoholic beverages, which were then converted into absolute ounces of alcohol per day and per drinking day using the standard TLFB methodology Bowman et al.

The present analysis used cross-sectional data collected at the time of enrollment.

The purpose of this report is to describe the relationship of paternal alcohol consumption, as reported by the mother, and the quality of the intimate couple's relationship to maternal alcohol use during pregnancy in a sample of pregnant women in Ukraine. Similarly, for pregnant women, the quality of their intimate relationships with their partners ukrainian dating Haven KS be an important predictor of their drinking habits during pregnancy. Heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, and drinking problems have been associated with more conflict and dissatisfaction in intimate relationships for male and female drinkers Fischer et al.

Two recent surveys conducted in Russia estimated the prevalence of any alcohol consumption among pregnant women to be as high as Prior research also indicates that women in post-Soviet societies experience a much greater level of psychosocial distress than men, although at least one study suggests that such elevated stress levels do not translate to risky alcohol consumption patterns in women Cockerham et al.

According to maternal reports, Almost half of the partners Overall, Paternal drinking was highly correlated with maternal drinking during pregnancy. Women met the criteria for enrollment in the comparison group if they reported no more than two drinks in any week in the month before their last menstrual period, no more than two drinks in any week in the most recent month before enrollment, no occasions in those time periods where they drank two drinks in a single day, and scores below the established cutoff on the screening questionnaires i.

In addition, a nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to compare medians of the quality of relationship variables across the three study groups. Increased risks for alcohol-related birth outcomes also include spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm delivery, neonatal death, sudden infant death syndrome, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiencies, and cognitive and behavioral problems Iyasu et al. The magnitude of association was extremely high in this study population, and a dose-response pattern was observed between maternally reported paternal drinking and the pattern of maternal drinking, with the strongest association for women who continued drinking in the most recent 2 weeks of pregnancy.

The association was independent of maternal age, marital status, family socioeconomic status, maternal smoking status, pregnancy planning, and parity.

With respect to quality of relationship, women were asked to report on a 5-point Likert-type scale a how happy they were with their relationship, b how easy it was for them to talk about feelings or problems with their partner, and c how often they quarreled with their partner and whether the quarrels involved physical fights. Finally, an analysis of the relationship between paternal drinking and maternal drinking that tested two-way interaction terms for paternal drinking and each of the relationship variables was conducted.

of our study indicate that paternal frequent or heavy episodic drinking, as reported by the mother, was strongly associated with maternal drinking during pregnancy independent of other risk factors. As part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, pregnant women in two regions in Ukraine participated in an in-person interview at an average gestational age of 18—19 weeks.